Third Stream

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Third stream is a term coined by composer Gunther Schuller to desribe music that attempts to mix jazz with classical concert hall music. Jazz caught the ear of many composers in the early 20th century and soon Ravel, Debussy, Stravinsky and others began to put elements of American ragtime into their music. French composer Darius Milhaud furthered these experiments that culminated in George Gershwin's 'Blue Monday' and 'Rhapsody in Blue', two pieces which represented some of the first truly successful fusions of jazz and concert hall music.

From the jazz side of things, early attempts at classical influence came from Duke Ellington, Artie Shaw, Woody Herman, Bix Beiderbecke, James P. Johnson and others. Gunther Schuller and John Lewis' 'Third Stream Music', which combined a string quartet with a cool jazz combo, was one of the first entirely successful concert hall pieces by a jazz composer.

In today's music world, Third Stream often refers to compositions that have some element of jazz. At JMA, the Third Stream genre is also where you will find jazz or jazz related music that relies on composition more than improvisation.

third stream top albums

Showing only albums and live's | Based on members ratings & JMA custom algorithm

JOHN ZORN Magick Album Cover Magick
JOHN ZORN
4.86 | 6 ratings
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MILES DAVIS Sketches of Spain Album Cover Sketches of Spain
MILES DAVIS
4.50 | 38 ratings
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LALO SCHIFRIN The Dissection and Reconstruction of Music From the Past (aka Blues for Johann Sebastian aka Marquis de Sade) Album Cover The Dissection and Reconstruction of Music From the Past (aka Blues for Johann Sebastian aka Marquis de Sade)
LALO SCHIFRIN
4.95 | 3 ratings
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TERRY RILEY In C (Members of the Center of the Creative and Performing Arts in the State University of New York at Buffalo feat. conductor & saxophone: Terry Riley) Album Cover In C (Members of the Center of the Creative and Performing Arts in the State University of New York at Buffalo feat. conductor & saxophone: Terry Riley)
TERRY RILEY
4.66 | 6 ratings
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KEITH JARRETT Arbour Zena Album Cover Arbour Zena
KEITH JARRETT
4.54 | 9 ratings
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JACQUES LOUSSIER Baroque Favorites: Jazz Improvisations Album Cover Baroque Favorites: Jazz Improvisations
JACQUES LOUSSIER
4.75 | 4 ratings
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JAN GARBAREK Mnemosyne (with The Hilliard Ensemble) Album Cover Mnemosyne (with The Hilliard Ensemble)
JAN GARBAREK
4.50 | 4 ratings
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GEORGE GERSHWIN Rhapsody in Blue (feat. conductor: Michael Tilson Thomas) Album Cover Rhapsody in Blue (feat. conductor: Michael Tilson Thomas)
GEORGE GERSHWIN
5.00 | 1 ratings
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STEVE KUHN Pavane For A Dead Princess Album Cover Pavane For A Dead Princess
STEVE KUHN
5.00 | 1 ratings
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JACQUES LOUSSIER Bach: Goldberg Variations Album Cover Bach: Goldberg Variations
JACQUES LOUSSIER
5.00 | 1 ratings
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KEITH JARRETT Spheres Album Cover Spheres
KEITH JARRETT
5.00 | 1 ratings
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OUTWARD BOUND Outward Bound Album Cover Outward Bound
OUTWARD BOUND
5.00 | 1 ratings
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This list is in progress since the site is new. We invite all logged in members to use the "quick rating" widget (stars bellow album covers) or post full reviews to increase the weight of your rating in the global average value (see FAQ for more details). Enjoy JMA!

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third stream Music Reviews

ERIC HOFBAUER Prehistoric Jazz – Volume 1(The Rite of Spring)

Album · 2014 · Third Stream
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js
It seems every time you turn around these days someone has a new jazz version of “The Rite of Spring” out. Possibly the recent 100 year anniversary of the piece has something to do with that. A certain high profile piano trio got a lot of attention recently for their rendition of “Rite”, but their version was turgid and unimaginative compared to this far better version by the less known guitarist Eric Hafbauer and his four creative band mates (Jerry Sabatini - trumpet, Todd Brunel - clarinet, Junko Fujiwara - cello, Curt Newton - drums). This version of “Rite” uses the melodies and structure of the original for some very imaginative improvisations that also manage to stay true to the integrity of Stravinsky’s original piece.

There are so many interesting cross-references at work here, Hofbauer seems to have thought of everything. First of all, the sound and approach of this ensemble often sounds a bit like 1920s jazz, which would have been the era in which “Rite” could have been first played as an experimental jazz piece. None of this is obvious or ‘museum like’ as Hofbauer also draws on many modern elements such as free improvisation and more. The 20s sound of the ensemble and the modern NYC eclectic influences blend seamlessly, the end result is a piece that fits well with the music of today, but could almost pass as an avant-garde piece from the 20s as well. The 20s was a very experimental time in jazz, with a lot of borrowing from modern composers, and its possible Hofbauer may be paying tribute to that.

The other interesting cross-reference comes when you notice that when “Rite” is played with this small ensemble, it sounds a lot like Stravinsky’s “History of the Soldier”. “History” was one of Igor’s follow-ups to the massive “Rite”, a small scale piece by contrast, “History” was one of his first pieces to show a strong influence from jazz, both in the instrumentation and in the music. Possibly the key to bringing all these elements together, the 20s jazz and the latter jazz influenced Stravinsky pieces, is the fact that there is a clarinet on board instead of a saxophone. Todd Brunel’s clarinet playing is what gives this rendition of “Rite” so much of its flavor. All of this may sound academic, but despite their sensitivity to nuance, Eric and his crew approach this music with sly humor and a sense of chaotic fun.

Eric Hofbauer’s version of “The Rite of Spring” never gets boring or predictable, the main melodies of the piece come and go while they mix with all manner of diversions and excursions. Eric is able to accent the modernist elements of this piece, both in the context of its time period and today, and show the connecting similarities in both decades. This rendition really brings new life to Stravinsky's creation, and I think Igor would have enjoyed hearing it. The added plus is Hofbauer’s guitar playing, which somehow can capture some of the color of Stravinsky’s original orchestrations.

MAGNUM TRIO Magnum Trio

Album · 2013 · Third Stream
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DamoXt7942
MAGNUM TRIO were founded as a flute ensemble trio by Jun'ichiro TAKU, Yuya KANDA, and Kazuhiro KAJIWARA in 2006, their university (Tokyo Univ. Of Arts, Japan) days. Got renowned with their marvelous flute techniques and unique original play styles, and got appreciated not only in Japan but all over the world. In 2013 they’ve released the eponymous debut album in collaboration with Yuiko YASUDA (piano) on their own. This "Magnum Trio" must let us enjoy their flute variations, funky tunes, and as a result, playing flute itself definitely.

"EyEris Waves", a track suitable for the opening of this album, sounds like fresh, cool atmosphere with complex air turbulence represented utterly with superb flute technique and multi-dimensional sound combinations. Their breath creation reminds us directly of breath by nature ... that can called also as their "human nature". Avantgarde piano play by Yuiko is another fantastic dreammare too. "Samurai Blow", exhibited in a woodwinds competition in UK, can be claimed as their masterpiece. They notify the audience of Japanese woodwinds (Shakuhachi) aka Japanese soul along with a large amount of sound variations via Western woodwinds called "flute". I'm sure there would be their magnificent intention to control breath, finger, and flute itself. Exactly originated Japanese social solidarity (called "Wa") has been launched via their systemic bodies. On the other hand, they show us East-European texture flooded with percussive blows upon the following track "Variations On Bulgaria", contrary to the previous ones. Persistent repetitive sound footprints might confuse us I guess, and the confusion in front of us should kick us away into a bulky yogurt cup. Oh what a sour.

Anyway, "Clock A Larm", characterized with brilliantly high-tone, rhythmical flute voices and pleasant tune phrases, should be needed as an alarm clock for us Magnumers (please ignore Jun's snore lol). Very easy for us to hum, isn't it? Another curiosity can gush out just when we listen to "Recollection Merry-Go-Round". IMHO suppose they'd play this stuff only with a head (top) woodwind, correct? Incredible technique and concentration needed. The sixth track "Highland Park" is the name of a Scotch distillery established on the North side in Orkney Island. I love Highland Park Single Malt Whisky, featuring peaty smokey topnote, ground / earthy flavour, and deep salty taste. This song fantastically shows flavour of ground / earth, smoke, and Bourbon / Sherry barrel. Would they visit Orkney previously? Very vivid the impression is. Jun-ichiro, btw, says he compose tunes with enjoying Highland Park 12 Years Old (on his blog), and it's fun how he shoot a creation if he could enjoy the whisky bottled more formerly (actually, deeper and earthier and esterier).

Yuiko's classical piano is splendidly beautiful in "Guilaume Lekau : Piano Quartet in B minor", where sounds like the three flutists would stand and play behind her completely (no? :P). Cannot shout "gemmy" enough, even if I did hundreds of times. On the contrary, suggest "Magnum Arab" be one of the jazziest pieces of all upon their library. Mysterious, religious veils around Arab world we can feel here and there, and at the same time, we can get immersed in their mysterious, wondrous play styles as well. The last "Magnum Bee" sounds like a bee flies around and around, very quickly and very smoothly, with loud buzz. But we feel not annoying but delightful via such a speed flute guru. Oh they might shout loudly "Hi there!" and let us keep opening the mouth forever.

Yikes. What a splendid work this debut creation was. Wish the mixing of this album could be better (cannot get deeper, louder sound explosion like Magnum, their title!), but we can say this creation can propose us their extreme, incredible flute techniques and delightful tunes. Enjoy!

WADADA LEO SMITH Occupy The World

Album · 2013 · Third Stream
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snobb
From the very early days of the AACM (Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians founded in Chicago in 1965) its members were influenced by classical/composed music as much as by jazz/improvisational.Muhai Richard Abrams,Roscoe Mitchell and trumpeter Wadada Leo Smith are all renowned authors of solid composed works, many of which are recorded.

"Occupy The World" is Leo's monumental two-CD conceptual album, dedicated to political tension and activism in the modern world. Smith developed his own non-metric compositional theory that he uses in his music: none of the five long (between 15 and 33 minutes) compositions have a continued theme, all the music is kind of liquid kinematic installation of rhythmic and melodic multi-layers, but it has nothing in common with esoteric/new age amorphous viscosity. Each musical layer, even more, each small element, is engineered in details. There are a lot of small spaces where each musician has some space for improvisation, so the music doesn't sound too fixed or cemented, but at the same time, there are not even minimal traces of chaos.

For listeners not very familiar with Smith's musical theories, this hour-and-half long double album sounds like something that is very close, and yet alternative at the same time, to a more traditional classical opus. These dramatic and often bombastic compositions also contains precisely included distortions and rhythmical structures that are more African than European, but all in all, this music sounds as if you're in an Opera House, not in a jazz club.

For this project, Smith and his regular collaborator bassist John Lindberg, co-operate with a leading Finnish progressive jazz orchestra (22-piece collective with harpist Iro Haarla, trumpeter Verneri Pohjola, Danish drummer Stefan Passborg, sax player Mikko Innanen on board among others). Not all the members play on every composition, Smith uses smaller sub-collectives depending on his vision and needs. Not all the compositions are really new - for example, "The Bell - 2" was originally written by Smith for the late 60s Anthony Braxton album, "3 Compositions of New Jazz".

Not an easy listen and probably even more controversial because of it being a cross-genre work, it represents one of the most ambitious and monumental pieces of music of the last couple years, not many artists around have the inspiration and faith required to still be working in this field. Wadada Leo Smith is one of the few living legends, who even in his 70s, is looking ahead.

NEIL ARDLEY A Symphony of Amaranths

Album · 1972 · Third Stream
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Sean Trane
Amongst the rare works of Neil Ardley that hadn’t received a reissue (CD or other), Symphony Of Amaranths was a major gap, and it finally found its way on Dusk ire in 2012 (much to my relief), though I didn’t find out until a few months ago. Along with its predecessor, Greek Variations, these two albums feature Ardley as a leader of Third Stream fusion (classic and jazz), and it is little wonder some draw comparison between Ardley and Gill Evans or Duke Ellington (as thought of with the previous Greek Variations). Retrospectively billed as the second staple of his “trilogy”, I find Amaranths much closer to Variations than to Kaleidoscope, but also less thrilling than the first. As for musicians, we’ll find the usual suspects, , from Lowther, Carr, Beckett, Barbara, Rendell, Heckstall-Smith, , Tracey,and Jenkins to Ricotti, Clyne, Hiseman, and many others. And in the string dept, you’ll find most of the names found on Variations as well.

The sidelong instrumental title track suite (dedicated to GE and DE) is the main course of the album, and is a good mix of classic music melted in a twirling happy big-band jazz music. The long piece goes through almost every mood, alternating between the string section and the horn section, but never afraid to cross-pollinate and present a hermaphrodite product that can either overjoy or repel the listener. Indeed, the barrier-breaking fusion can be seen as groundbreaking, but can also appear as a sell-out “Night Of The Prom” thing for those who don’t have the historical musical landmarks in mind.

The flipside opens with a big surprise with poems declaimed as narrative Dong And The Luminous Nose: I’m generally wary (if not even dismissive) of such musical cheesy exercise – even worse when rock music is involved: Tull’s Hare in Passion Play or Wakeman’s Journey or Round Table or Procol’s Something Magic - but in this case, we’re dealing with a very well written piece over texts from Edward Lear, James Joyce and Lewis Carroll that avoids cheesiness or ill-attempted humour and involves the spoken words (courtesy of Ivor Cutler) evolving to singing or almost rapping (ala Gill-Scott Heron), partly because the pace is gradually and dramatically increasing throughout, backed some tremendous instrumentation like Ricotti’s vibraphone. Ardley goes one further with Three more Poems, this time sung by the unavoidable Norma Winstone with a fun-time big band, though in this case, we’re closer to crooner singing, if it wasn’t for the advanced un-mainstream arrangements of the music behind her.

Of course, with the fad of bonus material added on to classic albums, they often don’t add up to much or are completely out of context and it is the case here, with the God Saves Tango version. Forgettable and best forgotten, really, as it kind of ruins the experience of the album.

Though SoA and GV are very audacious albums (if the present is a tad syrupy, because of the string section being too present), Ardley would go one step further (if not two) with Will Power (subtitled Shakespeare Birthday Celebration Music), but that is simply a step too far for yours truly. Thankfully enough, Ardley found the light and went back to safer grounds with the excellent Kaleidoscope Of Rainbows (76) and Harmony Of The Spheres (79), though both were quite unique and Ardley-esque in their own rights. In the meantime, Amaranths is a very solid (and unsettling) album that deserves to be heard by all Third Stream fans. And if you’re curious about the slogan of “Britain’s answer to Evans and Ellington”, you might want to check it out, to see if it isn’t usurped. Though Duke might seem a bit of a stretch (the recording technology and time lapsed is too big), comparisons with Gil are certainly valid. OK, Dusk Fire, bring on “Déjeuner Sur L’Herbe”, the last brick in Ardley’s wall.

TERRY RILEY In C (Members of the Center of the Creative and Performing Arts in the State University of New York at Buffalo feat. conductor & saxophone: Terry Riley)

Album · 1968 · Third Stream
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siLLy puPPy
Although TERRY RILEY actually composed his famous IN C way back in 1964, it didn't find a release as a recording until four years later. RILEY is famous for his minimalist approach to Western classical music with a healthy helping of jazz and Indian classical music as influences. Apparently the 60s was a time when composers were obsessed with finding ways to break down the barriers and limitations of the status quo by throwing all the accepted norms out the window and freeing themselves of set chord changes, scales and anything else that was thought to be “normal” for composers to accept.

IN C is interesting in that when played live it has no set duration. It can last a few minutes to several hours and every performance is improvised and therefore completely different. This one album is but a particular snapshot serving as a mere example of what you might hear if you happen to witness a live rendition. The whole thing is quite technical to explain and all the terminology including the term heterophonic which refers to different rhythmic displacements can easily be found on the internet.

Basically the whole thing begins on a C major chord with different patterns that recur by adding and subtracting different instruments. I would say it's kinda like you were walking down a very long hallway with rooms on each side and in each room there is a different instrument playing a subtly different part off of the C major chord. As you continue to walk you would hear the instruments you've already passed fade away while the ones you approach getting more prominent. Of course while all this is occurring some instruments begin and stop randomly.

It is all strange and unpredictable as to which rhythms and timbres will occur yet totally predictable as to which notes will continue during the 45 minutes of length, at least on my CD. Of course RILEY would go on to redefine music in other ways but on this album he shows that you can be academic in your approach and still make something pleasurable to listen to. Of course, this is one of those occasional listens since it is so strange as to be almost alien. I can hear how artists like Philip Glass and others were influenced by some of RILEY's approach. It seems the Acid Mother's Temple has done a version of this as well as many others.

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